Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy such as Down syndrome has rapidly transformed the global prenatal screening landscape. In the Netherlands, NIPT is only available within the TRIDENT studies. Aim is to investigate all aspects for responsible implementation of NIPT in the Dutch prenatal screening program.

This nationwide study evaluates two parts of implementation:

  1. Part I. Organisation, logistics, outcome, test-performance and costs
  2. Part II. Women’s decision-making, uptake, preferences, psychosocial aspects


(>April 2014) includes women who are at an elevated risk of carrying a fetus with Down syndrome (or trisomy 18 or 13) based on first trimester combined test (FCT) or medical hisotry. A license was granted after positive advice by the Dutch Health Council.


(>April 2017) NIPT is offered as first-tier screening test to all ~170,000 pregnant women in the Netherlands. See Health Council advice. Women are given a choice between FCT, NIPT, or no prenatal screening. To create equal access, both tests are offered at comparable costs. The NIPT is subsidised by the Dutch government.

Both TRIDENT studies end April 2023.

The TRIDENT studies (Trial by Dutch laboratories for Evaluation of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing) have been designed and are carried out by the Dutch National NIPT Consortium.

The NIPT Consortium is membered by all Dutch stakeholders involved in prenatal care including obstetricians, clinical geneticists, midwives, laboratory specialists, the VSOP Dutch Genetic Alliance, ethicists, and researchers. Below those involved from the Amsterdam UMC are stated. A list of all NIPT consortium members can be found here

      Project leader

      Other contributers to the project:

      • Dr. S. van ‘t Padje, project manager
      • Dr. A.J.A. Kooper
      • Dr. M.P.R. Lombardi
      • I.M.C. Bakker
      • E.J. Bradley
      • C. Louwerens-Zintel
      • M. Smit

      Amsterdam UMC researchers